Chief Executive

The king was invested with the supreme military, executive, and judicial authority through the use of imperium. The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As being the sole owner of imperium in Rome at the time, the king possessed ultimate executive power and unchecked military authority as the commander-in-chief of all Rome's legions. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from magistrates' misuse of imperium did not exist during the monarchical period. Another power of the king was the power to either appoint or nominate all officials to offices. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome and as the commander of the king's personal bodyguard, the Celeres. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office and the tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, who acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers and abilities, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city. The king even received the right to be the sole person to appoint patricians to the Senate. The executive is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state. The executive branch executes the law. The excutive also was established in the 2nd article of the constitution. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers. In some countries, t e term "government" connotes only the executive branch. However, this usage fails to differentiate between despotic and democratic forms of government. In authoritarian systems, such as a dictatorship or absolute monarchy, where the different powers of government are assumed by one person or small oligarchy, the executive branch ceases to exist since there is no other branch with which to share separate but equal governmental powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branchan attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history. The executive officer is not supposed to make laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). The role of the executive is to enforce the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judicial system. [edit]Responsibility The top leadership roles of the executive branch may include: head of stateoften the de jure leader, the chief public representative and living symbol of national unity. head of governmentoften the de facto leader, overseeing the administration of all affairs of state and enforcing the law. defence ministeroverseeing the armed forces, managing and determining military policy. finance ministeroverseeing the treasury and national budget, managing and determining fiscal policy. foreign ministeroverseeing the diplomatic service, managing and determining foreign policy. In a presidential system the leader of the executive branch is at once the head of state and head of government. In a parliamentary system, a cabinet minister responsible to the legislature is the head of government, while the head of state is a largely ceremonial monarch or president.